As all present kneel, Kundry, released from her curse, sinks lifeless to the ground as a white dove descends and hovers above Parsifal. Since Parsifal could initially only be seen at the Bayreuth Festival , the first presentation in was attended by many notable figures. Reaction was varied. Some thought that Parsifal marked a weakening of Wagner's abilities. The critic Eduard Hanslick gave his opinion that "The Third act may be counted the most unified and the most atmospheric.
It is not the richest musically," going on to note "And Wagner's creative powers?
For a man of his age and his method they are astounding One cannot help but discern sterility and prosaicism, together with increasing longwindedness. The conductor Felix Weingartner found that: "The Flowermaidens' costumes showed extraordinary lack of taste, but the singing was incomparable When the curtain had been rung down on the final scene and we were walking down the hill, I seemed to hear the words of Goethe 'and you can say you were present.
Hugo Wolf was a student at the time of the Festival, yet still managed to find money for tickets to see Parsifal twice. He emerged overwhelmed: "Colossal — Wagner's most inspired, sublimest creation. When I came out of the Festspielhaus, completely spellbound, I understood that the greatest and most painful revelation had just been made to me, and that I would carry it unspoiled for the rest of my life. I cried for two weeks and then became a musician.
All my innermost heart-strings throbbed I cannot begin to tell you how Parsifal has transported me. Everything I do seems so cold and feeble by its side. That is really something.
Parsifal is one of the loveliest monuments of sound ever raised to the serene glory of music. Some took a more acerbic view of the experience. Mark Twain visited the Festival in "I was not able to detect in the vocal parts of Parsifal anything that might with confidence be called rhythm or tune or melody It does seem the wrong name to apply to it In Parsifal there is a hermit named Gurnemanz who stands on the stage in one spot and practices by the hour, while first one and then another of the cast endures what he can of it and then retires to die.
Performance standards may have contributed to such reactions; George Bernard Shaw commented in that: "The opening performance of Parsifal this season was, from the purely musical point of view, as far as the principal singers were concerned, simply an abomination. The bass howled, the tenor bawled, the baritone sang flat and the soprano, when she condescended to sing at all and did not merely shout her words, screamed Stravinsky was repulsed by the "quasi-religious atmosphere" of the festival.
Stravinsky's repulsion is speculated to be due to his agnosticism. As Wagner's last opera, Parsifal has been both influential and controversial.
The use of Christian symbols in Parsifal the Grail, the Spear, references to the Redeemer together with its restriction to Bayreuth for almost 30 years sometimes led to performances being regarded almost as a religious rite. In his essay "Religion and Art" Wagner himself described the use of Christian imagery thus: .
When religion becomes artificial, art has a duty to rescue it. Art can show that the symbols which religions would have us believe literally true are actually figurative. Art can idealize those symbols, and so reveal the profound truths they contain. The critic Eduard Hanslick objected to the religious air surrounding Parsifal even at the premiere: "The question of whether Parsifal should really be withheld from all theatres and limited to Bayreuth was naturally on all tongues I must state here that the church scenes in Parsifal did not make the offensive impression on me that others and I had been led to expect from reading the libretto.
They are religious situations — but for all their earnest dignity they are not in the style of the church, but completely in the style of the opera. Parsifal is an opera, call it a 'stage festival' or 'consecrational stage festival' if you will. Wagner had been greatly impressed with his reading of Arthur Schopenhauer in , and this deeply affected his thoughts and practice on music and art.
Some writers e. Bryan Magee see Parsifal as Wagner's last great espousal of Schopenhauerian philosophy. Moreover, he displays compassion in the face of sexual temptation act II, scene 3. Schopenhaurian philosophy also suggests that the only escape from the ever-present temptations of human life is through negation of the Will , and overcoming sexual temptation is in particular a strong form of negation of the Will. When viewed in this light, Parsifal , with its emphasis on Mitleid "compassion" is a natural follow-on to Tristan und Isolde , where Schopenhauer's influence is perhaps more obvious, with its focus on Sehnen "yearning".
Indeed, Wagner originally considered including Parsifal as a character in act III of Tristan , but later rejected the idea. Friedrich Nietzsche , who was originally one of Wagner's champions, chose to use Parsifal as the grounds for his breach with Wagner;  an extended critique of Parsifal opens the third essay "What Is the Meaning of Ascetic Ideals? In Nietzsche contra Wagner he wrote: . Parsifal is a work of perfidy, of vindictiveness, of a secret attempt to poison the presuppositions of life — a bad work.
The preaching of chastity remains an incitement to anti-nature: I despise everyone who does not experience Parsifal as an attempted assassination of basic ethics. Despite this attack on the subject matter, he also admitted that the music was sublime: "Moreover, apart from all irrelevant questions as to what the use of this music can or ought to be and on purely aesthetic grounds; has Wagner ever done anything better?
Some writers see in the opera the promotion of racism or anti-semitism. Parsifal is proposed as the "pure-blooded" i. Aryan hero who overcomes Klingsor, who is perceived as a Jewish stereotype, particularly since he opposes the quasi-Christian Knights of the Grail. Such claims remain heavily debated, since there is nothing explicit in the libretto to support them. Despite this chronological evidence, Gobineau is frequently cited as a major inspiration for Parsifal. The related question of whether the opera contains a specifically anti-Semitic message is also debated.
Hans von Wolzogen and Ernest Newman who analysed Parsifal at length, make no mention of any anti-Semitic interpretations. The conductor of the premiere was Hermann Levi , the court conductor at the Munich Opera. Since King Ludwig was sponsoring the production, much of the orchestra was drawn from the ranks of the Munich Opera, including the conductor. Wagner objected to Parsifal being conducted by a Jew Levi's father was in fact a rabbi. Wagner first suggested that Levi should convert to Christianity, which Levi declined to do.
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When the King expressed his satisfaction at this, replying that "human beings are basically all brothers", Wagner wrote to the King that he "regard[ed] the Jewish race as the born enemy of pure humanity and everything noble about it". It has been claimed that Parsifal was denounced as being "ideologically unacceptable" in the Third Reich ,  and that the Nazis placed a de facto ban on Parsifal.
A leitmotif is a recurring musical theme within a particular piece of music, associated with a particular person, place or idea. Wagner is the composer most often associated with leitmotifs, and Parsifal makes liberal use of them. The opening prelude introduces two important leitmotifs, generally referred to as the Communion theme and the theme of the Grail.
These two, and Parsifal's own motif, are repeated during the course of the opera. Other characters, especially Klingsor, Amfortas, and "The Voice", which sings the so-called Tormotif "Fool's motive" , have their own particular leitmotifs. Wagner uses the Dresden amen to represent the Grail, this motif being a sequence of notes he would have known since his childhood in Dresden. Many music theorists have used Parsifal to explore difficulties in analyzing the chromaticism of late 19th century music.
Theorists such as David Lewin and Richard Cohn have explored the importance of certain pitches and harmonic progressions both in structuring and symbolizing the work. As is common in mature Wagner operas, Parsifal was composed such that each act was a continuous flow of music; hence there are no free-standing arias in the work.
However a number of orchestral excerpts from the opera were arranged by Wagner himself and remain in the concert repertory. The prelude to act I is frequently performed either alone or in conjunction with an arrangement of the "Good Friday" music which accompanies the second half of act III scene 1. The score for Parsifal calls for three flutes , three oboes , one English horn , three clarinets in B-flat and A, one bass clarinet in B-flat and A, three bassoons , one contrabassoon ; four horns in F, three trumpets in F, three trombones , one tuba , 6 onstage trumpets in F, 6 onstage trombones; a percussion section that includes four timpani requiring two players , tenor drums , 4 onstage church bells , one onstage thunder machine ; two harps and strings.
Parsifal is one of only two works by Wagner in which he used the contrabassoon. The other is the Symphony in C. The bells that draw the knights to the Grail ceremony at Monsalvat in acts 1 and 3 have often proved problematic to stage.
For the earlier performances of Parsifal in Bayreuth, Wagner had the Parsifal bell , a piano frame with four strings, constructed as a substitute for church bells. For the first performances, the bells were combined with tam-tam and gongs. However, the bell was used with the tuba, four tam-tams tuned to the pitch of the four chime notes and another tam-tam on which a roll is executed by using a drumstick. In modern-day performances, the Parsifal bell has been replaced with tubular bells or synthesizers to produce the desired notes.
The thunder machine is used in the moment of the destruction of Klingsor's castle. Parsifal was expressly composed for the stage at Bayreuth and many of the most famous recordings of the opera come from live performances on that stage. These are still considered some of the best performances of the opera on disc. They also contain the only sound evidence of the bells constructed for the work's premiere, which were melted down for scrap during World War II. Hans Knappertsbusch was the conductor most closely associated with Parsifal at Bayreuth in the post-war years, and the performances under his baton in marked the re-opening of the Bayreuth Festival after World War II.
These historic performances were recorded and are available on the Teldec label in mono sound. Knappertsbusch recorded the opera again for Philips in in stereo, and this release is often considered to be the classic Parsifal recording. Pierre Boulez and James Levine have also made recordings of the opera at Bayreuth that were released on Deutsche Grammophon and Philips.
The Boulez recording is one of the fastest on record, and the Levine one of the slowest. Amongst other recordings, those conducted by Georg Solti , James Levine with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra , Herbert von Karajan , and Daniel Barenboim the latter two both conducting the Berlin Philharmonic have been widely praised. The film exists in two versions: 1 a complete version running minutes and officially approved by Domingo, and 2 an minute version, with cuts of passages regarded by the German distributor as being too "political", "uncomfortable", and "irrelevant".
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Parsifal disambiguation. Further information: Wagner controversies. Main article: Parsifal discography. Opera portal. Seattle Opera House. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 11 January Mohr und Zimmer, Heidelberg Tagebuchaufzeichnungen bis , ed. The Musical Times. Retrieved February 18, Project Gutenberg. Skelton, Geoffrey.